如何从业务分析师转型为业务架构师

How to Move from Business Analyst to Business Architect

As an analyst, you spend your day designing your organization’s processes, measuring their performance and ironing out the fine details. You focus on the “how”. You’re very good at it, but maybe you’re more interested in the “what”? If you want to move past the nitty-gritty of processes and devise end-to-end models and strategies instead, then you’re looking make the leap to business architect.

摘自IT帮《BangBA实践》公开课讲义

The necessity of architects is a byproduct of digital transformation.

There’s a growing need for talented pros who can reduce complexity, establish solid technology processes and ensure tech’s used consistently across business units and functional areas.” — Sharon Florentine, CIO

What is a business architect?

As a business architect, you will design the structure of the business as a whole by looking broadly at systems design and requirements. Your aim is to improve the business’ operations in line with goals and strategy. Architects do this by theorizing and testing the components of a system (the technology, the flow of work, the deliverables) and overseeing the implementation of the systems by someone in a business analyst role.

Architects earn around 70% more than analysts, with an average salary of almost $120,000. In fact, 60% of today’s architects were once analysts.

Business architect business analyst past roles

It is a natural career progression because the jobs are two sides of the same coin; one side comes up with the strategy, the other works out the fine details. Once you have an understanding of how systems work at a low level, you are more qualified to implement them from the top down while understanding how it works in practice.

As outlined in every business architect’s tome of wisdom, the BIZBOK guide, the core principles of business architecture are:

  1. Business architecture is about the business.
  2. Business architecture’s scope is the scope of the business.
  3. Business architecture is not prescriptive.
  4. Business architecture is iterative.
  5. Business architecture is reusable.
  6. Business architecture is not about the deliverables.

In the words of Cecille Hoffman, a business architect which was previously an analyst for ten years, the day-to-day of a business architect is mostly:

  • Formulating frameworks and building models
  • Writing concept documents
  • Critiquing project proposals
  • Preparing for and conducting knowledge elicitation meetings
  • Asking a lot of questions
  • Collaborating, facilitating, more collaborating
  • Identifying “services” in product offering visions
  • Tending an organic ten-year roadmap

While analysts handle something closer to technical project management in their assigned teams, IDG found that architects have “a strong relationship with the business side of the house”, but aligned more with senior IT management than analysts.

The difference between analyst and architect

How the roles of analyst and architect overlap (Source)

According to Sergey Thorn — Member of the Architecture Forum since 2004, and Global Head of GBP IT Architecture at HSBC — business architects can be considered a senior version of analysts, with the architect designing the ‘broad strokes’ of a strategy which the analyst will implement in fine detail.

“Business Analysts are on the way to becoming Business Architects. Sometimes called IT Business Analysts, they are not strictly business or IT specialists. They write business cases (with very few technical terms), identify business requirements and often are part of a Development Team.” — Sergey Thorn, HSBC

The only universally recognized difference is that analysts work more closely with the team they’re a part of, implementing the components of systems with direction from architects rather than building end-to-end systems on their own from scratch.

“There is one real difference I see here: a business architect works in the realm of strategy, and business systems analysts are engaged with tactics. I just can’t see that as a sufficiently profound difference to call them distinct fields of study.” — Kevin Brennan, IIBA

Unlike in your role as an analyst, you’re not devising specific solutions. It’s more like coming up with reusable blueprints for buildings than it is working out which exact bricks to use. Moving to an architect position is a transition from maker to manager, which means you will need to acquire a new set of skills to match.

Your skills as an analyst will give you vital perspective on what is an isn’t possible when you’re creating architectural solutions, but there is a fair amount of theory split across multiple frameworks that you will be expected to know when you interview for the role.

In this post, we’ll look at the ways you can skill up from an analyst to an architect.

Get TOGAF certified

Bill Reynolds, IT research director at Foote Partners says that companies consider TOGAF to be “the gold standard architecture framework”.

It’s not always a concrete requirement for a job, but it is always preferred. As of 2017, only around 10,000 people were TOGAF certified, and these people most often held senior positions in the IT division of firms such as IBM, Oracle, Cisco and Deloitte. With a TOGAF certification, you become one of the elite few eligible for the best architect positions at leading companies.

You can self-educate in preparation for the TOGAF examination, which will cost you just the price of the exams ($495 in total). The examination is conducted in two parts, allowing you to learn the foundations and the advanced topics incrementally, or simultaneously to get it done faster.

TOGAF paths

According to Dice, TOGAF is “regularly at the top of the most in-demand skills in the quarterly pay-review reports” of top IT firms, and those qualified receive above-average pay. “There’s simply not enough architecture talent, and so pay premiums are an interim solution to get and keep people with the skills”, Reynolds says, as reported by Dice.

To get certified, you’ll need to study the materials and register for the examinations. You can take the first exam with no prior qualifications. You can also attend training sessions to brush up on your knowledge.

Study the Zachman framework

Zachman Framework Business Architect

The image above is a visual representation of the Zachman framework, which was the first attempt to organize enterprise architecture. It was developed by John Zachman, a senior member of the IT systems staff at IBM in the 1980s. It is not a concrete methodology or set of processes, but rather a relational map showing how different elements of the business architecture intersect, and what they depend on.

The framework consists of 6 columns:

  1. Inventory Sets — What
  2. Process Flows — How
  3. Distribution Networks — Where
  4. Responsi